To see the world

屏幕快照 2015-06-12 12.27.13 am

I really want to talk about the film named “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty”. In my original thought, I expected that the film is a fiction comedy just like “Click” acted by Adam Sandler, because, after all, the name of “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” looks interesting and unintelligible whose director and chief actor are the same figure, Ben Stiller who is the funny sign. Nevertheless, beyond my expectation, the theme of the work is filled with realistic atmosphere and fresh style. It stimulated the rotation of my brain instead of numbing it just like breathing the fresh air with the breath of the grass. The feeling is gladdening the heart and refreshing the mind. “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” is origin from an excellent script. The pace of the film is slow but it never misses the turning and the dialogue is loved but unconventional. This type of style breathes the new life for the film. It is vivid to present in front of the audience. The 25th negative is not only the suspense but also clues, just like the bomb under the table from the Hitchcock mouth. It makes the whole story becoming tension. The perfect combination with pace and atmosphere adds the beautiful colors for the whole scene.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Actually, like most small budget films, it is necessary that there are many characters no need in the film. Therefore, many exquisite carvings are used to describe the characters, such as, the daydream symptom of chief actor, the embarrassing reaction at the first sight to his favorite girl as well as the mental activity in travelling. It describes the role from different perspectives and it is not only initiating the resonance of audience to reality, but also triggering the thirsty to secret ideal. For instance, the scene of daydream and having a date with beloved girl occurs in reality in many people’s lives and riding on skateboarding to travel to a remote and pretty place is the ideal life to a lot of people. These descriptions gather together, satisfying the expectations of audience in a certain sense to make them happy.

Besides the gist and the story, there are many aspects which are worth praising, such as, the picture of the film, some pretty scenery in different locations and the soundtrack music with philosophical lyrics and catchy melody. The most valuable point lie in comedy elements throughout the whole film, such as, the Dumbledore joke at the beginning of the film, the elder sending telegram and Benjamin Barton wonders. These features make the film more explicit and add a kind of sense of the comedy. Meanwhile, they are integrated into the whole film instead of overwhelming. An elegant gist is significant and the scene and picture is worth pursuing perfect to all directors and audience. The ability of appreciating the beauty is natural and inherent. That is the essence of film.
See the world is the real theme of this film,most of 70% pictures is the singular scenery of nature. Beautiful Iceland (the main location), towering Himalaya, connected by the main line for pan. From the original audience vexed disorderly, to gradually only fantasy, finally in the harsh natural environment that people did not want anything. Only will be cranky dreamers, in very much in tune with the sound of music, in tracing the journey step by step change for the fearless adventurer. I am very fond of the skateboard and climb mountains walk alone picture at the end.

After I saw the movie,I also saw the’ The Secret Life of Walter Mitty: Behind the Scenes (Broll)’,so I learned that a lot of things I can not image before.So many amazing scenes were build by the technical skills not only just the easy shooting.I realized that I still have to learn much skills and open my mind to imaging what can happen by myself.

屏幕快照 2015-06-11 11.58.13 pm

SOUND amazing & IMAGE amusing

At this semester beginning,we were asked to image our goals and desires and  what we want to get out of this semester.I try my best to not missing every lecture and tutorial in this semester.I really thank Paul and Jeremy for giving us a lot of distinctive ideas we never catch before and very useful guides to get all our want,and offer more practice to handle the basic skills.Especially,Jeremy is a very patient teacher for leading us,he always taught us the basic details again and again,we always regarded him as a friend not a teacher.I really feel sorry about we did not have taken a photo together with all my classmates and Jeremy for a really great semester.

Now, I reviewed constructively what I got from this semester.This course lived up to my expectations, and delivered what I expected.At the first time,Jeremy was pushing a cart of equipments in front of our face,I was so excited about what I have seeing.This course give me a lot of first experience,such like first time to hold a handheld recorder to catch all kinds of sound I interested;first time to interview people on the road;first time to face the camera as an actor;first time to call out’action’;first time to set up all the equipment to shoot a short film;first time to work with a group for filming and so on.I really appreciate for having these experience,these definitely can give me a huge help for my future real job.

From this course,I learned how to communicate with my group member to making a satisfied film to everybody;how to set up the equipment;how to work out roles and responsibilities;how to arranged every crews as a director;how to use the camera to shooting;how to get a perfect frame as a camera operator;how to get a great audio recorder;how to organized all the clips to build an orderly folder;how to edit the clips by Premier as I want;how to add the title and use colour grade and all kind of effects to make a real film.I really like this course,every my efforts can come true as a real thing as a video appearance.Every effort will have a harvest.So it definitely is sound amazing and image amusing.

From the ‘Lenny shoot’,it helped me to build individual creative ideas and opened my mind towards working on it in the future about how to make a great film.From the ‘Vox Pops’ exercise,it also helped me explore about the documentary deeply and put more passion on the documentary in the future.

Documentary in a Day-Call me Director

Making a documentary looks like so far away from me before I became a member of this class-Sound and Image.At the beginning,we got a theme named’HOME’ for our documentary.Beforehand,our group think about What will our documentary be about? We definitely consider that our documentary should be worthy of our audience’s time.Try instead to focus on the contents and the people appearance in the documentary. In simplest terms, try to film things that are interesting and to avoid things that are boring or ordinary.I think we chosen a worthy topic.Home not just one simple word for people,it also means a lot for each people ,and even included different deep meaning to people.So our groups figure out the contents with all of the passion.

After the first shoot,we realized that we got a lot of problems.Firstly,our prepared questions were not appropriate for the Interviewees,they could not get the point about most of the questions when they heard at the first time,and it wasted lots of time to explained the real meaning to the interviewees.

Secondly,it must be the audio.When an interview is shooting,the interviewee’s voice by the audio recording is the most important factor of the film.As I know,the producer would like to spend hours on set design and lighting,but they just use only a few minutes on audio. Without sound, I think it would have no film,all left with is a talking head that does not transmit any message to the viewer.There was a big problem about our first shoot,we set up our interview on the Bowen St..We originally thought there was more silent than the Swanston St.,but we did not notice  there was a kind of power station with low noise.Finally we just got a not clearly audio record that time.From this experience I learned that we should check all the details even conclude  the environment.

Thirdly,the question definitely is about the light.As you see the first picture,we filmed a girl in the bright room,and I really like the shadow on her left face and make her looks so confidence.

屏幕快照 2015-06-07 5.42.46 pm

As you see the second picture,we set up the light like we were in a dark room,and the light makes the curtain behind the interviewees looks like so strange ,and makes the atmosphere a little dramatic.

屏幕快照 2015-06-07 5.43.06 pm

As we see the third picture,we set up the light looks like she just in a very dark room ,and makes her back totally dark,it looks so different with the second one,but they were the same the light makes it totally different.

屏幕快照 2015-06-07 5.43.26 pm

I can’t tell you how many times we’ve seen people with huge crews and massive lights spend hours lighting an interview that could have looked stronger by just working with the window light that was there.Sometimes, we just setup what we think we are supposed to for an interview. Or we feel bad if we don’t use our most expensive and coolest lights.Light is very important to the shooting.But, as with most experienced skills, if we grasp the basics before moving up, we can often do much more and gain much further.

As you see the following picture,we got the different frame,I guess we just used the different camera,and it has the different resolution,and we did not check this before we started to shoot,unfortunately.Next time,I will check this before.More practices can give more experiences anyway.

After that set up things,I started to edit with my clips we shoot.The big problem for me is the video’s length.I got almost one hour clips,and I must cut them into less than three minutes.So check the useful clips for the final video is a big work for me,I must check them seconds by seconds,thinking about the light,the audio,the frame,the content,the focus.I already can image that be a filmmaker the work would be a huge part for editing.But for me,it also be an interested part,I really like the wonderful clips we got,so I can see them hundreds of times without any complaint.Fortunately I got the perfect clips can use and totally connected with the content’Home’.

At the first,I added the title of the video,I used the title effects to make my title ‘HOME’ have the symmetric just make the word looks like on the water,then I added each question we have made some attention to people know about the content clearly.And I also used the colour grade to make my video looks like real film.The final step is add the music, it is easy for me, because I have done it before.

Here is my video,named ‘HOME’.

HOME COMPLETE ME from Ailee Ma on Vimeo.

Audio build the atmosphere-Forbidden Lies

This clip just from one of the Australian documentary film “Forbidden Lies,” directed by Anna Broinowski. The film examines the 2004 memoir “Forbidden Love” by Norma Khouri. I did not see this documentary before.

屏幕快照 2015-06-06 7.47.14 pm

At the opening,we can noticed that it shows a sweet couple which they live in a very happy life together,and we also can noticed there were several kinds of the sound effects like:the birds chirping,one woman sing a lovely song,Conversion scene sound effects,the voice of the car running,the sound of a woman throwing her scarf and landing on the ground,Footsteps on the sand and the Wind.In this part,I think the editor just focus on express the romantic between the couple,so the song was the whole background music from the beginning to now.We can not listen what the couple talking about except the sound of bird,when they were in a restaurant,we should listened some noise in the reality,but we did not.So I think the editor used the sound effects to build a romantic atmosphere and ignored the other stuff sounds.I think it is a good way to express what you want emphasized.

屏幕快照 2015-06-11 9.33.37 am

As we see the next part the woman disappeared on the desert suddenly,and you just saw See a woman sitting behind the table was interviewed,and she said‘This is not the truth’ and a kind of sound effects like turning off a television or closing a book.Then the following was a cash register sound effect.Then the editor just focus on what the woman said and the camera follows her in doing things,but expect of the voice of her speech, I did not hear other voices, such as her footsteps when she through the Jordan Times building,When she walked into the room to greet the other person in the room,I did not hear any sound,just when she used her computer,interspersed with the sound she struck the keyboard. Then I heard a kind of sparkly musical Instruments sound when this woman is talking about the book.I think maybe it just connected with the book content.

屏幕快照 2015-06-11 9.36.34 am

Then the clip change to the outside by an interview with one woman named Amal,it has two layers of the sound,and I can hear the sound about her talking about the books and some kind of effect sound by the beautiful birds and wind. Then the camera brought us to a different setting by the use of the same sparkly musical Instruments sound for the book with another woman.There have three layers of the sound. The first layer is the surround effect, the second layer is the voice of interviewees,the last layer is the sound of intonate.

屏幕快照 2015-06-11 8.23.13 pm

When the image begin to present the map,I really like the sound effect like animation effect.It has two people to say the same page of story obviously,I think it is a good way to express one thing by different people with totally opposite  opinion.

From this clip,I noticed the sound effect was very important.This clip just like a sound effect library,I learned a lot of how to build the audio.It is an essential part of making a movie.It can bring the audience into the special atmosphere you want to create quickly.

Introduction to Documentary-show the real

Through I read the ‘Introduction to Documentary’,I found the author Bill Nichols divided the mode of documentary film into six modes:the Expository mode,the Poetic mode,the Observational mode,the Participatory mode,the Reflexive mode,and Performative.I must say when I saw these different type of documentary,I am not strange for it because I have seen these different modes in the different documentary before,except of the Poetic Mode,it is totally different for me.In my opinion,this type of documentary does not emphasize the depiction,not focus on creating a specific time and space for audience and not  emphasize the continuity of editing. It focused on the creation of rhythm aim to express the  mood and emotional appeal through the different spatial juxtaposition.Without any equivocation,the Poetic mode is very hard to complete for me like a beginner.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

As the Expository mode, this kind of documentary’s intentions disseminate very clearly,the creators relied on the power of the commentary to convince the audience to accept their point of view. A typical characteristic form is the “Voice of God”as Bill Nichols said,evidence,omniscient viewpoint.As the Observational mode,this kind of documentary is longer than the expression of the real world, but it is difficult to deal with historical themes. Because of abandon the voiceover,subtitles and images,it really can not easily flow in the long-winded and bored.As the participatory mode,director does not hide the presence, on the contrary, the director deliberately stressed interaction with the subject.As the Reflexive mode,the notable features of this type of documentary that presents social history of the documentary itself reflection. Like other types of documentaries,reflective expression documentaries importance of the real world, but more importantly, the film director also expressed reflection on documentary filmmaking itself. Such films often seem more abstract and difficult to understand.As the Performative mode,real events subjective enlarged,depart from the realistic style.The director focus on the subjective elaborate.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

For me,I really like the Observational Mode to make my own documentary.As an international student,when I studied in Melbourne for several months,I was very interested in the real life for the international students study aboard.Different culture,different language,different people give them all kinds of challenge.I really want to record some students real life,such like their daily life:how to rent a place to live,how to buy daily necessities for live,how to associate with local people and make new friends and so on,how to fight with their tough course,how to find a part-time job.I also want to focus on some couples of them,express their variety of love and love.As I am also a international student,I knew the situation about them very clearly.And for another reason,as my understanding,just use the observational mode may make the documentary so boring,so I want to use the participatory mode in my documentary additional.In this way,add my real experience,or ask the questions through my personally feelings.I think through the mix way would make my documentary more plenitude and attractive.

Reference list:

Nichols,B(2013),6 Types of Documentary,viewed  25 May 2015,<;

laurahillll15(2012),Documentary styles examples,viewed  25 May 2015,<;

No Direction Home – on my way forever

At the beginning,we can see a man play the electric guitar on the stage,and with a bunch of the spotlight on his body from the ceiling.Then the following is a young man’s close-up scene which playing harmonic.Bob Dylan is not unfamiliar singer for me,I really like his songs when I was very young,especially the song named’blowing in the wind’,just because this is one of the episode of the film’Forest Gump’.So I can recognized him at this moment.I am not a huge fun for him,so I did not know much about him expect his song,and I did not see the‘No Direction Home’ before.But Bob Dylan is the most important artist to modern pop music. He is not only a great singer, an extraordinary live performer,a pop culture symbol,but also the most outstanding composer of his time.To now,through the video using the live show for his masterpiece,and then he sang the lyricsI with ‘No Direction Home’,so I can guess this video maybe tell us some about his past.In other words,maybe it’s a biographies for Bob Dylan.

With the live show is finished,the scene becoming to a black and white image and his song appears as background music,then the special voice of Bob Dylan was coming out.At the following scenes,we can see several black and white videos for the playing record,his living house many years ago,his picture when he was a little boy.And Bob Dylan talked about his childhood,growing.Through the characteristics of his tone,I can image it was an old man want to share his life with the audience by his clearly memories.And the voiceover complete the storytelling.So the audience will ready to get in the hero’s story has a simple and clear direct sense, it enhances our desire to continue to inquire, but also to avoid the attention of the audience dispersed to other minor, but these subtle message in the film is still no picture when presented it will be passed to us.

As we see,all of the videos about Bob Dylan’s memories were used Black and White.On the one hand,at his generation,the reserved pictures would be Black and White,it was the true reflection of that age;on the other hand,this way can push the audience into the atmosphere of empathy which the director wanted to created.I think it was a very useful way to express about one older person’s past in the biographies. Then we can noticed,the video also included the interview about Bob Dylan,and it was colourful scene.This way can remind the audience what is the past and what is the processing.Bob Dylan sat in front of the camera and said:’I am on the way home’ with a pragmatic tone as his usual and trying to thinking seriously.I really like the light used,with the background music,it really can make the audience feels a lot connected with their personality experience.

As the film continues,the editor Thelma Schoonmaker interspersed use variety of pictures of Bob’s past.So I think maybe this video would have one clue which is coherent,it is Dylan’s growth process.New York,anecdotes,love,politics,all kinds of details about himself.If you want the to know Bob Dylan,I definitely believed that it is the best way by seeing  this film’No direction home’,it would be a pure documentary,there were baby fat Bob,a handsome young man by high-spirited on the stage,wrinkled old man and so on.In addition,it should be say that the director Scorsese got absolutely amazing skills to collect the historical data,basically any information that Bob Dylan mentioned can be found very consistent image or video in the film.I think it is very important and useful way  to make a good documentary by all kinds of material can be used,kind of the picture,video,the newspaper.And through the editor used the fragment to exposed the subtext lead to the audience’s sympathetic response.And for me,Bob was also a poet, through the 2 minutes documentary,you can find the poetic monologue everywhere.

The first screen appearing in the film,Typically,this picture would represent the whole theme of the story,and attitude.In this beautifully constructed 2 minutes sequence,Bob talked his father and brother about how they influence his life.So I imaging that the following  film maybe appears Dylan’s friends and his predecessor who influenced him.And perhaps listen to him tell the stories about his old friends for many years.I must say this 2 minutes sequence,it totally attract me to see the whole film,maybe when I finished my assignment.I will spend a whole day to see it and figure out if my imagination is right.And for me,Bob was a poet, through the documentary,you can find poetic monologue everywhere.’Where I was born, very far away from my home, my way of being home’.

Lenny – First Fantastic Shoot!

In our class,we got an unprecedented task.It was so exciting work for us,and all of us were expected can have this kind of chance to shoot a real video with a real script.That was shoot a short video by ourself which named ‘lenny’ used the script by our teacher.We should divide into groups,and each person should take charge of each crew for the shoot.Because our group have so many persons,we must separate to two days for shoot.First day,I was the actor for lenny.Second day,I charge for the camera operator.

Before you turn on your camera:pre-production

When the first time I got the script,because the script is so short and looks so simple ,I just read it for several minutes.And I really believed I got the whole meaning and can handle  the shoot without any difficult.But when our group discussed with the script,I realized  that I missed many details,such like every scene about the requirement of lens.After the first meeting about lenny shot,I find some skills about how to prepared for the shooting be professional and effectively from internet and library.Firstly,I think about the suitable position for the coming shoot,such like if the climate can match the story’s prospect,and also consider the place is definitely safe for the group shoot. Secondly,I create storyboards with several clip-art images for camera setups,such like the shooting angle,high angle shot,long shot,full shot,close-up shot, close shot,medium shot,background,three-quarter shot and so on.Thirdly,I also set up descriptive layouts and settings for each scene and shot.Make sure the shot type, angle, movement and equipment, including zoom in or zoom out, and sometimes,several methods can be used in combination with.After these preparation,it really made our following shooting more easier and effectively.

Before you call out:action!

Before action ,I learned a lot of things must to done.Firstly,adjust the white balance is the most important things to do .Even with a piece of white paper are shooting in different environments, such as different time, different light sources,it will be a totally different deviation.Correctly record our eyes seeing,it’s the reason for adjust the white balance.If you forgot,It totally can destroyed your video.

Up to now I still  felt so disappointed with myself about our group first shoot.we did not check our equipment when we start to our location we find for shoot.Just until our group members set up the camera,the director give the actors proper location and begin to shoot that we found our camera could not record as we want.We spent a lot of time to try to fix the problem,but unfortunately we failed.So we waste our first time for shoot and make whole group member felt so depressed.Through this unforgettable experience,it is still vivid in my memory:CHECK ALL OF YOUR NEED BEFORE ACTION!

Think more than you want:post-production

After we finished our shoot,we began to edit our video by Adobe Premier.I just found that it is very necessary need to readjust the white balance first when the location,temperature and lighting conditions changing.During our Lenny shoot,when we change our location from building to the street,the light turns more shine,but we forgot to readjust the white balance,so our shoot shows more white like exposure,and hard to focus on the actors face.As we know, before we started shooting in the use of digital cameras, must adjust the white balance in order to obtain a satisfactory colour effect, when the conditions changing, also need to readjust the white balance, if the white balance of the camera is not correct, there will be colour distortion.

Then the question of composition is also very important thing need to consider.  For example, During the Lenny shoot we want to put the actor in the middle of the picture, but the left side of the scene will looks too much, but the right side is so empty,it will need balance the whole frame.Maybe can be appropriate the screen a little to the left, although the character is not the center of the screen, but the the effect of overall frame will be very harmonious, does not affect the actors leading position.

After all,I realized  that SHOOT is not only about camera ,it also need you focus on everything about how can make it perfect.

Pawel Pawlikowski

Reality is always higher than art. That is the very essence of a documentary. When I finished watching the documentary ‘The Jinx: The Life and Deaths of Robert Durst’, I couldn’t resist appreciating the wonderful narrative perspectives and the inherently amazing plots. The clues are peeled layer by layer with the rhythm just right in place.

As the polish director Pawel Pawlikowski said, ‘One of the reasons I made documentaries rather than fiction films was because they give you more freedom and fun. (Macdonald, K & Cousins, M., 1996)’ Definitely it is the Bible of every documentary director who are really keen to distil a story, not just a form of art, but also the process and the spirit they want to deliver to the mass. Nevertheless, what we still remember after the films except the dazzling visual effects and the same pattern of line plots.


Back to the film ‘The Jinx’, so gorgeous works. It records the history, becomes the history, and finally changes the history. The clips and music are so fantastic and the bizarre shock and awful turning are more than imagined. Plus those controversial and charm people who are interviewed without any visual effects, my adrenaline hurricanes so intensely. Whenever I see those little white durst eyes, staring like two black holes, I am full of the feeling of being swallowed. Little white durst eyes and black holes is an analogy. In film, analogy is essential and vital. Analogy lies behind basic tasks such as the identification of places, objects and people. Analogy and abstraction are different cognitive processes, and analogy is often an easier one. This analogy is not comparing all the properties between a hand and a foot, but rather comparing the relationship between a hand and its palm to a foot and its sole(Michael A. Martin).


Why is this documentary so fascinating? I agree with what Pawel Pawlikowski said:’the most successful documentaries nowadays seem to be those made by people with a lot of time on their hands and stall their subjects for five or ten years.’Jinx is also a film which takes many years to make. Compare to other documentaries, it avoids a lot of arguments and plots which we have heard many times. Instead, it directly interviewed some of the key characters, such as catching off guard Bobby’s brother at the banquet greeting, which is never showed in previous interviews. The rhythm is perfect and six sets are totally not redundant cumbersome. In the documentary, the rhythm is significant. Rhythm generally means a ‘movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions'(Anon. 1971). Its narrative looks like Agatha Christie’s ‘The Murder of Roger Ackroyd’, full of suspense. This documentary breaks through HBO’s usually consistent modern series style and it especially reflects an artistic sense of rhythm.

The glamour of film or documentary lies in analogy and rhythm. When we use these elements in the film or documentary, the charm will appear in different aspects of film to audience.


Macdonald, K & Cousins, M. Imagining reality, (p. 389-392). London: Faber & Faber, 1996.

Michael A. Martin, The Use of Analogies and Heuristics in Teaching Introductory Statistical Methods

 Anon. The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary II. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Stop-motion Animation

I am an Animation Enthusiasts,full of passion into how can make one animation by myself.So I spent a lot of time to think about my animation story and learn the technical skills such like using the Adobe After Effects Pro.Generally speaking,Stop-motion animation is relative with the animation technique. It is original from shooting technique so that it applied in film long time. Excellent products of stop-motion animation are pretty attractive.

From some research works, I deeply feel that if I want to produce a perfect work, the expression of detail and technique is the most important. The reason why I want to make a stop-motion animation is a lovely toy rabbit which was bought by my friend. Obviously, I like it very much. However, I always have an idea that I want to endow the rabbit life. Suddenly, when I pay attention to the stop-motion, the idea comes true.Firstly,I began shooting with a camera. But it was not simple as my original imagination. The process was formidable to me, because I forgot the most vital process: design a script and have a plan to execute it. When entered into the practice, I began feel the difficult one after another such as scene layout, light adjustment as well as the operation of the rabbit and so on. Other problems occurred, for example, my friend knocked over the tripod carelessly. We must start it again. When all of shootings finished, I began processing the photos with after effects software. Unfortunately, I found that the strength of afternoon wind and the light intensity were inappropriate. So faced these problems, I had to repeat it to coordinate the process again. From the above others’ work and my individual experience, I learned from many ideas, techniques and detail description to stop-motion animation. All of them are pretty essential and vital. The above analysis is my understanding and reflection about stop-motion animation through my personal experience.

I have some ideas about “Paper War” directed by Zhang zhe and Wang xulong from Communication University of China. Firstly, in the process of manufacturing process, many preparations must be done. The workload is heavy. Many prototypes and pictures are made and it is a tiring journey. Actually, these preparations are necessary to every films but the cost may be high in stop-motion animation. The following pictures are a part of process in preparation.

Graph 1: Pictures in preparation

Note: pictures in the process of preparation, they are used in film

Sources: “Paper War”, Communication University of China

In my opinion, the most significant part is not only in this part, because the design of a film is the key point. Obviously, the design and development of script is crucial to a stop-motion. The reason is that the following actions are origin from it. An excellent script is critical as following graph 2.

Graph 2: Scripts in preparation

Note: Script in “Paper War” and design process

Sources: “Paper War”, Communication University of China

Secondly, in the editing procedure, the production staff must consider some techniques. The shot transition is the way in which two of these individual shots are joined together (Bernard F., Dick, 2010). For instance, in “Paper War”, some skills of transition are applied. Stop motion has very rarely been shot in stereoscopic 3D throughout film history. However, there are some innovations in the film and show the transition from 2D to 3D. As following pictures, a role of the film is from 2D plane to the 3D space from a plane of wall to table lamp. Another role catches up with the front by paper airline. It is also from 2D to 3D. However, finally, the most interesting result is that they integrate in 2D space.

Graph 3: 2D -3D transition

Note: Scenes from 2D-3D

Sources: “Paper War”, Communication University of China

Another example, a stop-motion animation is directed by Weng jie and Sun wei: “The snow mountain temple”. In the film, many techniques are utilized such as atmosphere rendering, the use of light as well as focal length adjustment. In the first act, snow is drifting in the sky and a lonely person emerges. It renders an atmosphere of loneliness. It is difficult to describe this kind of scene in stop-motion animation, though it is simple in the general film. The use of light is another character in animation demonstrating the texture of picture. As following pictures graph 4 and graph 5.

Graph 4: Snowing scene                                                  Graph 5: The scene of entering

Note: Atmosphere rendering                                          Note: Use of light

Sources: “The snow mountain temple”                        Sources: “The snow mountain temple”

Meanwhile, the character of focal length adjustment is described vivid so that the emotion of the film expresses incisive. In the film, it conveys the feeling that the leading role cherishes the memory of time with wife. In fact, the technique of expression is common in general films. Nevertheless, it is rare in stop-motion animations.

Graph 6: The scene of memory

Note: Focal length adjustment

Sources: ‘The snow mountain temple’

In one word, many new forms are applied in the stop-motion animation and the content of animation is more affluent. Many techniques of expression are utilized in the stop-motion animation. I believe that it is valuable experience. In this process, ideas and design is most vital in my opinion. Then, the innovation applied in the film attracts eyes of audience. Without doubt, the execution and reflection are necessary to every one of us.


‘First animated film’, Guinness World Records, Retrieved 5 January 2013.

Bernard F., Dick, 2010, Anatomy of Film – Sixth Edition. Bedford/St.Martin’s. ISBN 978-0-312-48711-9.